Back to Collection Index

Virtvs Exercit / Vot Xx



This type – ‘Two captives std. beneath vexillum inscribed VOT/X or VOT/XX’ was minted for Constantine and Licinius augusti and Crispus, Constantine II and Licinius II caesares. The augusti celebrated their 20th vows (VOT XX) and the caesares their 10th (VOT X). The type for the caesares was only minted in Aquileia and Siscia. Imitations of this type occur in the Danube region, using Siscia protoypes. Many ‘hybrids’ exist, pairing VOT X of the augusti with a portrait of a caesar and vice versa. This is another indication that ‘barbarous’ mints didn’t reproduce one particular prototype, but combined several obverse and reverse designs as they saw fit.







This imitation of a Constantine prototype has a typical SIS-mint mark with S’s on the side. Note also the reversed TOV in the vexillum. By the way, RIC lists no laureate bust for Constantine for this issue of Siscia.


Crispus and Constantine II



virt2.jpg virt3.jpg

L: 2.64g/17.5mm; R: 2.89g/18mm


These coins have a Siscia mintmark which unmistakenly identifies the origin of the prototype(s). The obverse legend of the coin on the left hand side has NOB CAES readable, while the number of preceding letters suggests CRISPVS was meant. The reverse, however, has VOT/XX on the vexillum. This number was, as mentioned above, only minted for Constantine and Licinius, celebrating their 20th vows. An emission of Siscia of 320 has S/F in fields and a SIS* mintmark, which are rendered very well on this coin. The coin on the right has a portrait of Constantine II caesar. The beginning of his name is clearly identifyable. His father, Constantine the Great, only has a helmeted bust. On the reverse of the coin the letters S/E appear, in stead of the prototype’s S/F.



The coin above is from the same group of irregular coins as the two coins above. It shows a bust of one of the Caesars and a corresponding ‘X’ on the vexillum. The exergue shows a clear barbarous Siscia mintmark SIS, with the two S’s on the side.


Licinius I






The coin above is rare, partly because the original is also rare. It features the bust of Licinius and has the 320 prototype with S/F in fields. The bust is identifyable as Licinius because the portrait has a beard and Licinius was the only one at the time who was portrayed with a beard. However, the vexillum has VOT X, the 10th vows, of the caesares. This means this is another ‘hybrid’ imitation.